University of Ioannina, PC 45110, Greece
+30 26510 07436

Objectives: Understanding metabolism as a set of biochemical reactions and processes related with the flow, interconversions and utilization of energy in living systems, regulation and homeostasis of the metabolic pathways of different types of biomolecules (sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, nucleotides) as well as their connections to human physiology and disease.


  • Basic concepts of metabolism: Catabolism, anabolism. Energy interconversions. Regulation of metabolic reactions. Principles of extracellular regulation. Signal transduction.
  • Sugar metabolism: Glycolysis. Glyconeogenesis. Pentose phosphate pathway. Glycogen metabolism. Glycogen storage diseases.
  • Energy metabolism: Citric acid cycle. Oxidative phosphorylation. Transport systems related with oxidative phosphorylation and the citric acid cycle.
  • Lipid and fatty acid metabolism: Lipolysis, β-oxidation, keton bodies. Biosynthesis of fatty acids, ecosanoids. Biosynthesis of phospholipids. Biosynthesis of cholesterol. Lipoproteins. Bile acids. Steroid hormones. Lipids and membrane targeting of proteins. Vitamin D.
  • Amino acid and nucleotide metabolism: Nitrogen metabolism. Urea cycle. Amino acid catabolism. Biosynthesis of amino acids. Methyl cycle, homocysteine.
  • Biosynthesis of nucleotides: regulation, salvage pathways, anticancer drugs. Nucleotide catabolism, Uric acid.
  • Integration of metabolism: Coordination of different metabolic pathways in human in relation to the various nutrient requirements and hormonal regulation.

Teaching format and learning outcomes: Teaching is implemented through lectures and complementary practical exercises. Students are expected to familiarize with the concepts and basic pathways of metabolism of biomolecules, the coordination and regulation of metabolic reactions at the level of the organism, as well as the deregulation of specific metabolic reactions in specific metabolic disorders. In addition, the students are expected to understand the principles of metabolism within the context of the major contribution of Biochemistry to other scientific disciplines.

Hours of training per Student: 127

Semester: 3rd